Chanterelle mushrooms are known to many as the "cockerel." Chanterelle ordinary or real (Cantharēllus cibārius) refers to the edible species of mushrooms from the family Chanterelle and the genus Chanterelle. Edible chanterelles are now quite often grown at home on artificial substrates. The chanterelle reproduces well, so growing it yourself is not difficult.
A feature of chanterelle mushrooms is their good taste and appearance, which, when cooked properly, is preserved even in ready-made dishes. Edible chanterelle has the following characteristics:
- fruit bodies in their shape are very similar to hat-legged varieties;
- a hat with a leg combined with the absence of a clearly distinguishable demarcation zone;
- coloration of the fruiting body can vary from light yellow to orange-yellow hues;
- the diameter of the cap rarely exceeds 6-8 cm;
- most often the cap is of irregular shape, with wavy pronounced edges, concave-prostrated or flattened;
- old specimens have a funnel-shaped cap;
- the surface is covered with a smooth and matte skin that is difficult to separate from the dense and fleshy pulp;
- the pulp of the leg has a fairly pronounced fibrousity, has a yellow color along the edge and a whitish tint in the central part of the fruiting body;
- the flesh is characterized by the presence of an acidic taste and a faint, subtle smell of dried fruits or roots;
- the leg fused with a hat is solid and dense, with a smooth surface and narrowing in the lower part, may have a lighter coloration;
- the pseudo-plate hymenophore is characterized by wavy, often and highly branched folds descending along the pedicle.
A characteristic feature of the chanterelle is represented by the almost complete absence of worms and larvae in the pulp.
Where to collect chanterelles (video)
Other species of chanterelle edible
There are also less common edible varieties of this mushroom than ordinary chanterelle, which have good taste and are used to prepare hot and cold mushroom dishes. The structure and coloring characteristic of different types of edible chanterelles vary slightly.
An edible variety is also Cantharellus cibarius var. amethysteus, which can be distinguished by lighter coloration and smaller sizes, as well as the presence of dense lilac-colored scales on the cap. A relative of the chanterelle is also Craterellus cornucopioides or the carnivorous funnel, which inexperienced mushroom pickers call black chanterelle. These mushrooms are edible.
False or inedible varieties of the fungus species under consideration are quite common and not toxic. False chanterelle or Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca and olive green omphaloth or Omphalotus olearius differ from these varieties in their place of growth, as well as in the coloring of the fruiting body.
When and where are they collected?
Velvet chanterelles grow on the acidic soils of deciduous forest zones, and the fruiting period falls in July-October. This rather rare species of edible fungus forms single fruiting bodies or grows in small groups. Faceted fox can form mycorrhiza with oaks, the main season of fruiting falls on the period from the first ten days of summer to the autumn severe cooling.
Gray chanterelles grow in the soils of deciduous and mixed forests, from the last decade of July to the first of October. They are practically not collected, this species is listed in the Red Book as rare. Species Cantharellus pallens grows in large groups, prefers deciduous forests, areas with natural forest flooring, places covered with moss and forbs.
Amethyst fox is characterized by the formation of mycorrhiza with such forest trees as beech, spruce, oak, birch and pine. Clublike chanterelles are found in deciduous forest zones, and can grow on moss or grass. You can find groups of yellowing chanterelles in August and early September in conifers and young spruce plantings. The funnel chanterelle forms mycorrhiza with conifers and prefers moist mossy forests, where fruiting bodies appear in large groups in the first decade of autumn.
The healing properties of chanterelle mushrooms (video)
Composition and benefits
The composition of the chanterelle pulp is enriched with a special substance called chitinmannose, which allows you to destroy worms or helminths of all kinds. Also in the pulp of chanterelles contains:
- vitamin A - 142.0 mcg;
- beta-carotene - 0.85 mg;
- Vitamin B1 - 0.01 mg;
- vitamin B2 - 0.35 mg;
- vitamin C - 34.0 mg;
- vitamin E - 0.5 mg;
- vitamin PP - 5 mg.
Mushrooms have anthelmintic, antibiotic, antitumor, anti-tuberculosis, general strengthening properties. The total energy value of mushroom pulp does not exceed 19 kcal.
The fruit bodies of chanterelles can not only be harvested for the winter, they prepare a lot of delicious, and most importantly very healthy dishes. Before canning mushrooms or heat treatment, it is necessary to carefully prune the root of the fruiting body, as well as remove all forest debris and dirt. It should be borne in mind that the flesh of most species is very fragile, therefore, it is necessary to clean and rinse the fruit bodies as accurately as possible.
Chanterelle is one of the most delicious mushrooms that can be used solo or in mushroom assortment for cooking the following popular dishes:
- fried with onions and spices;
- stewed in sour cream, "Old Russian";
- baked under a cheese crust;
- Mushroom cream soup;
- baked with apples.
How to cook chanterelles (video)
Many experienced mushroom pickers prefer chanterelles, due to their excellent taste, versatility of use and the lack of worminess of the pulp.